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“ These days we have Smartphones, Smart motorcars, Smart boards, Smart everything, but consider this if the technology is getting smarter, does that mean humans are getting dumber? ”

Rebecca McNutt
Dear Editor,

Research has been done on smartphone operation and its impact on all adolescents from so multitudinous times. It is not a new issue at all. But the adding trend of cell phone dependence and poor cerebral and physiological health of adolescents urged to write this letter. multitudinous studies have been done using different mortal behavior
as dependent and independent variable. Some researcher examined adolescent’s physical health or educational performance with smartphone dependence and others analyzed cerebral behavior
and social relationship with mobile phone dependence. In these papers, some of the bottom most studies were overviewed.
The rapid-fire- fire advancement in technology has made multitudinous contraptions, a smartphone is one of them( Ni shad and Reyna, 2016( 15)). People spend their time more likely on social media, do business emails, academic quest, chancing answers to questions, and playing games. nearly 95 percent of Americans enjoy cell phones and 77 percent own smartphones. Around the world, smartphones were used by1.85 billion people in 2014 which is anticipated to be2.32 billion in 2017 and2.87 billion in 2020( CIA and SEO, 2018( 8)). analogous too important reliance makes us “ Mobile addictive ”. Mobile phones make our lives easier, but on the other hand, it ties us. Mobile dependence not only has physical goods but also cerebral and academics effect at the same time. Sleep insufficiency, anxiety, stress, and depression which are all associated with internet abuse, have been related to mobile phone operation too(Densely Gutiérrezetal., 2016( 9)). All realities which can stimulate a person can be a dependence. Whenever a habit is converted into an obligation, it becomes a dependence( AltaVista., 2012( 1)). numerous researchers believe that smartphone operation and gender are not significantly associated( Ni shad and Reyna, 2016( 15)).

The major question is how do we get to know we are addicted to our cell phone? When a person uses his/ her cell phone ultimate of the time, unfit to cut back on cell phone operation, using cell phones as a result to boredom, feeling anxiety or depression when your phone is out of your range, losing your connections. Research says “ when cell phone use becomes a dependence, the behavior
becomes stressful ”. Salvatore Inside, a neurosurgeon at Northwell Health’s Neuroscience Institute in Manasseh, New York, considered that nonetheless that there is no solid substantiation between cell phone radiation and excrescence trouble but the possibility still exists. Adolescents are at high trouble of being smartphone addicts( CIA and SEO, 2018( 8)).
Devilish use of smartphone paired with negative station and feeling of anxiety and reliance on contraptions may increase the trouble of anxiety and depression( Rosenthal., 2013( 18), Thoméeetal., 2011( 20)). Jones( 2014( 10)) conducted a check about Elon scholars’ behavior
along with an online check and set up that scholars sounded to be addicted to their mobile phones. nevertheless, it was concluded that the devilish smartphone use had a negative cerebral effect.

Another disquisition was conducted on mobile phone operation in adolescents. They inked 439 scholars, aged 12- 17 from Central Switzerland as their sample and distributed a questionnaire among their parents first, also to the children( the procedure was repeated a time subsequently on the same sample). It was concluded that mobile phone operation during night hours was common among youths and reported that poor perceived health was shown due to staying over all night. No recordable association was set up between memory performance and mobile phones( Schoenietal., 2015( 19)). Redneck metal.( 2017( 17)) excavated cerebral health goods and stimulator of digital stress. He surveyed, 557 German internet stoners progressed 14 to 85 and reported that communication weight was positively related to perceived stress and had an indirect impact on depression and anxiety too.
Boumosleh & Jealous( 2017( 6)) excavated whether anxiety and depression independently contributed to smartphone dependence. Their sample was 668 arbitrary Lebanese undergraduate scholars. Their cross-sectional study proposed that depression and anxiety were also a positive predictor of smartphone dependence. They also revealed that with depression scores were a more important predictor as compared to anxiety. A study of Brian( 2013( 7)) vanquished “ Two days without phone ” and revealed that Kenny didn’t want to lose his cell ever but Francesca was happy to not have her cell phone and she decided to give up her phone. researchers set up a ferocious increase of cell phone operation among teenagers and the symptoms of depression, tone-murder trouble factors and tone-murder rate in the time 2012. Cell phone dependence is negatively linked with academic performance( Metal., 2017( 14); Beretta., 2018( 4); Appeal., 2015( 11); Boumosleh and Jealous, 2018( 5)). Are fin metal.( 2017( 2)) did a case study on business scholars in Bangladesh and set up that increased impatience and quotidian life disturbance negatively affected the academic performance of scholars.

Nevi and Godiva( 2016( 13)) observed BUG- SRT council scholars while walking around the lot, along with a questionnaire and set up 64 of scholars used mobile phones in the lot. A randomized sample of 100 scholars was collected. The check showed that there were negative cerebral goods of smartphone operation on the immature generation. They felt depressed and anxious while using cell phones. On the other hand, some youths showed relax behavior
indeed without having a cell phone. A study excavated the dependence to the internet and personality traits and set up that dedication, emotional stability, and extroversion were the major predictors of internet dependence( Zamanietal., 2011( 21)). Home metal.( 2011( 20)) aimed that high frequency of cell phone use had trouble of internal health issues when they had a 1- time followed-up for immature scholars progressed 20- 24. They concluded that high cell phone operation was associated with sleep deprivation and symptoms of depression for both men and women.

 A descriptive research suggested that internet addiction is similar to drug addiction except behavioral addiction (internet addiction) doesn’t involve a substance. In addition, the physical symptoms are absent in behavioral addiction, but if internet addiction continues, it will undergo the same results as alcohol addiction (Alavi et al., 2012[1]).

Another observational study reports that insomnia may lead to depression. Li et al. (2016[12]) did a prospective cohort and proposed that insomnia and risk of depression are associated. De-Sola Gutiérrez et al. (2016[9]) revealed that the problematic cell phone usage had been associated with sleep deficit, depression, anxiety, and stress.

Cha and Seo (2018[8]) aimed to examine the predictive factors of smartphone addiction in middle school students in South Korea. Two groups were chosen, one risk group and another normal group. The two groups expressed significantly different results. The predictive factors for smart phone addiction were social networking and awareness of game overuse. A researcher revealed that teenagers who spend more hours on their gadgets are highly likely more at risk of suicide. Another study by Augner and Hacker (2012[3]) examined an association between over usage or dysfunctional usage of cell phones and psychological health. They indicated that low emotional stability, chronic stress, and depression have a correlation with phone usage.

According to latest studies, it is come to know that there are two schools of thoughts. Some researchers believe that there is a positive association between cell phone addiction and the mental health of adolescence and some believe that there is a negative or indirect relation in them.

It is confirmed that adolescent’s mental health and physical health is associated with cell phone addiction. But we cannot say it with 100 % accuracy that mobile phone is the only cause of poor mental or physiological health issues in adolescents. Reviewed articles of this study showed dual results. The result comes in two different schools of thoughts. One opinion emphasizes that cell phone addiction and psychological health has direct relation. Cell phone usage badly affects mental health of adolescents and they look anxious, depressed and angry or sometimes commit suicide. The suicidal rate is increasing in this era. Some studies also showed a positive relation of cell phone addiction and physiological health.

The other school of thought reveals an indirect relation between cell phone usage and psychological health. They say adolescents use cell phones at night, which leads to insomnia. And insomnia ultimately results in depression, anxiety, and depression. Cell phone addiction has no direct relation to mental health. After reviewing these results, it is concluded that there is a relationship between cell phone addiction and adolescent’s mental or physical health whether they have direct or indirect relation. We cannot neglect the relation and its adverse effects on adolescents. It is suggested that more studies should be done in this regard to clarify their nature of relations.

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References

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